Chapter 4: Encoding (Part II)

Two kinds of learning:

  1. Simple – involves associating terms and acquiring them through rehearsal (e.g. memorizing grocery list, name of capital cities, etc.)

  1. Complex – involves understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking (e.g. digestive processes, chemical reactions, etc.)

Two types of Rehearsal:

  1. Maintenance rehearsal – shallow encoding; direct recycling of information in order to keep it active in STM (verbal repetition); retention is limited in this kind of encoding; highly efficient for a short-while; e.g. taking down someone’s telephone number; seldom last long L

  1. Elaborative rehearsal – information to-be-remembered is related to other information; deeper or more elaborate encoding activity; leads to high level of recall; sometimes, information can be broken into component parts and related to what one already knows

Strategies for encoding complex information:

Schema activation

Instructional techniques designed to bring to mind students’ relevant knowledge prior to their encountering new information

New knowledge is built on prior knowledge (bridging what they already know and what they want to know)

KWL method

Guided Questioning

Asking and answering questions about a text or teacher-presented information can greatly improve comprehension (hence, improve memorization and learning)

Allows students to think about, discuss, compare and contrast, infer, evaluate, explain, justify, synthesize, etc.

Guided peer questioning

Levels of Processing

What learners DO as they encode new information matters a great deal!

Memory/learning depends on depth of processing

1. Deep processing = processing centered on meaning (e.g. read ‘something’ and talk to the class about it without referring to any material, in one’s own words, etc.)

2. Shallow processing = keying on superficial aspects of new material (e.g. underline new words in the book, and look up for their meaning)

12 thoughts on “Chapter 4: Encoding (Part II)”

  1. Dr Roy

    I agree with the student who suggested that lecture handouts would be helpful because I find the notes a little sketchy. Of course, it helps if one has been to the lecture.

  2. Dr.Roy:

    I got more understanding at yesterday class, the reason is the strategies for encoding complex information. I think when people apply their knowledge according to individual experiences or personalized information will help them remember well. Especially I like the strategy of summarizing, because it will help us touse our own words to explain and understand more. But I think although the strategies are useful, but it also will take longer time for students to be used in their own way and perferance. Maybe for the teachers they should encourage in different way to prove the strategies in real practices at class.

  3. In our last class on Monday, i found out that people don’t specifically encode something with specific technique. In the class, we presented the simple and complex way of teaching students with different kinds of method. What i found out interesting is that i encode information not only with specific method of teaching that is taught in the class but i choose the most easy way that my memory can understand.

  4. Now I am more clear about ‘simple’ and ‘comples’ learning, after we have learned from the previous class. Also we had class activitiy on that day that each group represented their simple lesson plans for teaching kids by using different strategies, which really helped me understand more about learning. But I want to know, is it also appropriate to start teaching kid with complex lesson? Because complex learning involves understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking. But I believe that it is also good that teacher begins teaching from student’s knowledge level (KWL) then move up. “The more teacher asks questions, the more chance for students to think, and the better for the outcomes.”

  5. to add on what asher has to say.. i think our brain will not specifically indentify what kind of encoding method is best for us… there are times when we use one kind more often than the others, and that’s the one we find most confortable in encoding information. at times we use a variety of mehods to help encode information.. we even mix up some to help us encode better.. and yes.. which ever way is easy for us to put in information.

  6. say pler,

    i think it is okay for us to teach kids complex lesson but it is for us teachers to make the lesson simple and easy to understand for the kids according to their age, that’s also why we have encoding methods to help children encode new information better. As for the complex learning.. i think we have to make sure the kids cognitive skills is up to that level, i think we cannot expect them to do some sort of reasoning or critical thinking when they are not ready for it.. however, it’s not all impossible.. but still it all depends on the age group of the kids… 🙂

  7. Dr. Roy,

    By learning these strategies, I come to understand more about this quotation— “Tell me and I’ll forget. Show me and I’ll remember. Involve me and I’ll understand.”
    The students will remember their lesson by giving/show them the strategies but it is also important to let them understand their lesson; therefore, it is important to let them involve in the class activities so that they will encode and rehearse at the same time and then they will not only remember but also understand it.

  8. Dr, Roy
    The Deep Processing as we studied in class, I wonder, can deep processing and shallow processing be both combined in the debate strategies?
    In a debate student really need to understand the problem and go for it or against it in their own words.
    They also have to look at every aspects of material, words by understanding meaning of important key words.

  9. As we know, encoding is a hard process which needs a lot of attention. The interesting thing is that sometimes the complex learning is easier to memorize than the simple learning. Based on understanding and prior knowledge, we can memorize some complex concepts quite well and not forget them in a short-term time. However, we will easily forget some telephone numbers if we don’t rehearsal them often. So, learning how to organize the information and use various strategies to move toward meaningful is quite important of our encoding.

  10. I think asking questions is a very good way for teacher to help students in encoding process. Asking questions to the class and specific students can make student attend to the information and begin to process it. Asking questions also encourages students to react and emphasize. Students can actively involve in their learning. They think about the questions and the answers. Then they draw some meaning from it. According to National Research Council, the more meaning and relevance a topic has, the more it will capture and hold attention.

  11. This is a late comment…

    In teaching teacher should clarify clearly which part is important. by making that particular part exciting .. just like when i think of a movie i watch, i dont really remember everythig but i rember the most exciting part of the movie then follow by the lest exiting.. and some boring part i dont tend to rember it…

    by making the important part in lesson interesting and exciting.

  12. After reading other’s people comment i look back in to my expirence of encoding, and i C that Emotion is very effective to Encoding and Memorizing text. such as when im down because of some reasons, then i go study for test i would not rember a thing….

    Then i realize that Enviroment in classroom for children is very important.

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