Chapter 5: Retrieval Processes (Summary)
Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP)
Memory is enhanced when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval
Context – affects both encoding and retrieval
1. Environment – same place!
2. State-dependent – drug states
3. Mood-dependent – mood states
Good memory is a result of a GOOD LINK…!
Memory Cues / Retrieval Cues – enhance memory (sights and sounds, moods, psychological conditions, etc.)
“All forgetting is due not to the actual loss of memories, but our inability to retrieve them”
Recall = retrieving without any hints or cues (free recall and cued recall)
Recognition = examine a list and identifying what one has learned before
Q: How do you prepare for a Multiple Choice quiz?
How do you prepare for an Essay quiz?
Which one is easier to study for and take?
Generation Effect = “verbal material self-generated at the time of encoding is better remembered than material that one merely reads at encoding”
Elaborative Interrogation = asking ‘why?‘ enhances encoding and retrieval
Memory Reconstruction = retrieval is not just a straightforward reading out of memory – rather than remembering the entirety of a memory event, only KEY ELEMENTS of an episode are stored, guided by schemata – you usually retrieve some key elements and reconstruct the rest (e.g. what happened in the church last Sabbath?). For this, we rely on…
› Gist of experience
› General knowledge
Flashbulb Memory = memory of highly specific events (e.g. where were you at the time when the WTC were attacked? What were you doing?)