Chapter 5 (Part II)

Chapter 5: Retrieval Processes (Summary)

Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP)

Memory is enhanced when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval

Context – affects both encoding and retrieval

Context effects

1. Environment – same place!

2. State-dependent – drug states

3. Mood-dependent – mood states

Good memory is a result of a GOOD LINK…!

Memory Cues / Retrieval Cues – enhance memory (sights and sounds, moods, psychological conditions, etc.)

“All forgetting is due not to the actual loss of memories, but our inability to retrieve them”

Recall = retrieving without any hints or cues (free recall and cued recall)

Vs.

Recognition = examine a list and identifying what one has learned before

Q: How do you prepare for a Multiple Choice quiz?

How do you prepare for an Essay quiz?

Which one is easier to study for and take?

Generation Effect = “verbal material self-generated at the time of encoding is better remembered than material that one merely reads at encoding”

Elaborative Interrogation = asking ‘why?‘ enhances encoding and retrieval

Memory Reconstruction = retrieval is not just a straightforward reading out of memory – rather than remembering the entirety of a memory event, only KEY ELEMENTS of an episode are stored, guided by schemata – you usually retrieve some key elements and reconstruct the rest (e.g. what happened in the church last Sabbath?). For this, we rely on…

Gist of experience

General knowledge

Flashbulb Memory = memory of highly specific events (e.g. where were you at the time when the WTC were attacked? What were you doing?)

6 thoughts on “Chapter 5 (Part II)”

  1. “Memory is enhanced when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval” I do agree with this quotation because sometimes I use to experience a tip-of-the-tongue, I couldn’t retrieve some particular things in the exam hours so I tried to search for informations in the exam papers to see whether there is any hint/clue that relate to that particular things. When I see a word or phrase that related to that particular things, I can retrieve the information that I had forgotten.

  2. Memory is a reconstruction sometime when only the KEY ELEMENTS are stored, we usually retrieve only key elements and reconstruct the rest.
    I agree with this idea, I can retrieve the information that I forgot by using key elements. However, the quality of the information that was reconstructed is not usually good and complete.
    I would like to know what are factors that affect the reconstruction process? Can it be pressure?…
    Because I used to use reconstruction method for studying before examination, but often I reconstructed the false information when i sat in exam hall…

  3. Dr. Roy:

    This is a long chapter for learning memory retrieval. I do agree that our memory is enhanced when the information available at encoding is also available at retrieval. Pople have different retrieval memory for recall their information. So I think the retrieval processing is individual, it means people can retriev a thing in different way. As a teacher we should encourage the students to use their own ways to recall information. But we might need to provide their confortable environment, place, etc.

  4. “Context – affects both encoding and retrieval… environment – same place”
    As I re-read this chapter, I agree with it because it reminded me when the final exam come, we all have to sit in auditorium. Not the same place as we are learing in classroom. So, any time when I tried to answered the questions, my memory turn me back to the classroom when I learned my lesson and remembered my teacher explained it to me.
    This is one way of context effects that our memory encode and retrieve the information difficult if the the envorinment is different.

  5. I’ve experienced many incidents where I remembered distinctly about something when I smell a particular odour, when I hear a particular sound or when I taste a particular food or fruit. Sometimes it’s like a miracle. Memories which I would never try to retrieve, suddenly come back when they are triggered by certain stimuli. Knowing about how memory retrieval process works better, I would definitely create a rich environment for the students where there are several learning aids such as visual, auditory and kinestic learning equipment. I would also encourage students to make sense of what they are learning and apply them to the real world by elaborating and evaluating what they learn in class. In other words, students will be given the opportunities to connect and associate what they learn in the school with what is really happening outside the classroom. In order to be able to teach the students effectively and efficiently, teachers should use both heads-on and hands-on approaches.

  6. I’ve experienced many incidents where I remembered distinctly about something when I smell a particular odour, when I hear a particular sound or when I taste a particular food or fruit. Sometimes it’s like a miracle. Memories which I would never try to retrieve, suddenly come back when they are triggered by certain stimuli. Knowing about how memory retrieval process works better, I would definitely create a rich environment for the students where there are several learning aids such as visual, auditory and kinestic learning equipment. I would also encourage students to make sense of what they are learning and apply them to the real world by elaborating and evaluating what they learn in class. In other words, students will be given the opportunities to connect and associate what they learn in the school with what is really happening outside the classroom. In order to be able to teach the students effectively and efficiently, teachers should use both heads-on and hands-on approaches. Students should be given with opportiunities and chances to think and also imply what they learn by doing and experiencing in real-life setting which means that teachers should not assume that students will learn as long as they listen to the lectures, get a good grade and graduate with honours. Furthermore, schools should be a place to produce thinkers who have their own creativities and potentials.

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