› What are some of the factors that contribute toward the success of students at school?
› What are some of the factors that contribute toward the failure of students at school?
› Which one of these factors do you think is the most common (for both success and failure)?
› Which one do you think is the most difficult to deal with (for failure)?
- Social cognitive theory (relationship between self-confidence and learning)
- Attribution theory (how students explain their academic success and failure to themselves)
- Student control and autonomy (how students’ and teachers’ expectations create a controlling or autonomy-producing environment in the classroom)
Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura)
› What is self-confidence? What is it not?
› Where does it come from?
› How can it be improved?
Bandura’s ‘reciprocal determinism’ states that learning is the result of an interaction among the following variables:
click on this link for the diagram…
(Self-efficacy judgment & outcome expectancy)
Beliefs and attitudes that affect learning
Environment (Teacher, parent, and peer feedback) – role of significant others
Behavioral (performance) – responses one makes in a given situation – Effort? Luck?
Before I engage in anything, I…
- Need to have self-belief that I will be able to do it, (“I can do it”)
- Know that I will experience something NICE as a result of that behavior (“It’s worth doing it”)
Give examples for the above mentioned assertion.
Self-efficacy = the degree to which an individual possesses confidence in his/her ability to achieve a goal
Outcome expectancy = the perceived relationship between performing a task successfully and receiving a specific outcome as a consequence of that performance
E.g. I am a good driver, with superb driving abilities. Nevertheless, I am still exposed to chances of accidents because people (in this particular area) like to drink and drive recklessly.
How does this affect my thoughts toward my abilities in driving? How does this affect my actual driving skills?
Two types of learning
- Enactive learning = learning by doing
- Vicarious learning = learning from a model
The more I do something successfully, the more I do it with great confidence!
Learning (in general) is affected by:
- Developmental status of the learner
- Prestige of the model
- One’s ability to set an attainable goal (specific, attainable, of moderate difficulty)
- any other factors you want to suggest???
Illustration: Story of the drunken father with two sons – One son determined never to become like his father. The other one used his father as an excuse to follow in his footsteps – same environment but different self-belief and attitudes
Self-efficacy is DOMAIN SPECIFIC
Linked strongly with behavioral outcomes (expectancy) and environmental cues (feedback)
Positively affects performance and vice versa
Indirectly affects future learning by predisposing students to engage in challenging tasks and to persist longer despite initial failures
Differ along three dimensions:
- Task difficulty
- Generality (domain specificity)
- Strength of one’s efficacy judgment (weak vs. strong perceptions)
Students with higher efficacy will be more inclined to persist and to maintain self-confidence!
Dependent also on:
- Successful performance (initial ones esp.)
- Model is judged to be similar in ability (teacher vs. peer)
- Verbal persuasion
- One’s psychological state
- What does it mean to have control (or be in control) in the classroom while learning?
- What are the characteristics of caring teachers, who would enhance students’ learning to the maximum?
- Why do you think that “the number of years teachers spend in the classroom negatively affect their efficacy?”