Question 4 (Jan 24, 2008)

a. How would you use mnemonics (memory strategy) to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples (10 points)

b. How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom? (10 points)

7 thoughts on “Question 4 (Jan 24, 2008)”

  1. Q4a.
    Mnemonics is simply a device which aids in the memory of something. There are many kinds of mnemonics such as acronyms and visual aids. Everyone was raised differently and your present and past environment both contribute to leaning connections between cells making the memorization of something harder or easier. Helping our students to make learning fun will halo the information stick through mnemonics. If you are a visual learner, mnemonics will make use of the visual, literature style of leaning. If you are an auditory or kinesthetic learner, mnemonics will help you to learn to use imagery for effective recall. Auditory students can use auditory cues such as rhymes. Kinesthetic students can use performing actions or tools. No single instructional technique can solve all learning problems. Teacher directed instruction is applied consistently using the mnemonics.

    Q4b
    The zone of proximal development [with reading, for example] provides guidance to the teacher in taking care of selected material prior to pupils doing the actual reading. The ZPD may be applied in relation to reading from basal texts through the process of ascertaining present reading levels, realizing ideal reading levels, noting the zpd and providing applicable activities and experiences. The zpd should take care of any problems by involving objects in the reading process, talking about them, writing down the discussion, and reading what has been written down. Multiple intelligences theory may be used in assisting pupils to revealed what has been learned. But the problem is that with each passing year, it becomes increasingly harder to maintain student motivation to read and improve reading comprehension. The two most common intelligences addressed in the classroom are verbal/linguistic and interpersonal and the two least common are intra personal and naturalistic intelligence. Teachers need to implement the multiple intelligences theory as there primary solution to increasing motivation in students. MI incorporates 8 major intelligence areas. These areas as defined by Gardner and Armstrong are: linguistic intelligence [word smart], logical-mathematical [number smart], spatial intelligence [picture smart], bodily kinesthetic [body smart], musical intelligence [music smart], inter personal intelligence [people smart], intra personal intelligence [self smart], and naturalistic intelligence [nature smart]. These intelligence reflect the structure of individual languages; the power restraints in yourself, expectations pf others, cultural pressures an accepted norms of thinking, and work to solve problems [Chapman,1993].Each person as born with all 8 intelligences and it is recommended that teacher s use a variety of ways to teach a lesson [Safi, 1996]

  2. a) How would you use mnemonics to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples.

    It is a well-known fact that concrete images are more memorable than abstract ideas, and this is where mnemonics are a particularly useful tool as they help to make associations to aid in remembering and can hook into prior experiences to make connections with the new learning. The difference in learning styles comes through which type of mnemonic the students choose to use, but as all students possess all learning styles, it is possible that it is not as clear cut as in the examples that I give below. However the predominance of one learning style may lead to certain types of mnemonic being more effective for certain students when storing information. For example, the visual learner relates most effectively to written information and, therefore, may choose to write an acronym or acrostic. The auditory learner will relate most effectively to the spoken word and, therefore, may choose a rhyme or song as their preferred method of mnemonic. The kinaesthetic learner learns effectively through touch and movement and space, using imitation and practice and will, therefore, prefer the method of loci strategy which requires walking a path or common route and associating different objects/landmarks that you pass with an item/fact that is being remembered. The commonality to all three learning styles is that practice will make perfect, therefore, rehearsal is imperative.

    For example in am elementary classroom (rightly or wrongly) much emphasis is placed on the learning of colours and, often the colours of the rainbow are used. A visual learner may write out the times table and then associate each answer with a rhyming word (two – few, four – door, six – sticks, eight – late, ten – pen, twelve – shelf etc) and then draw a picture to match each one. The auditory learner may choose to create a song to a familiar tune, or create a rap, then record it and listen to it over and over, until they know it by heart. The kinaesthetic learner will walk the journey to school selecting landmarks for each answer (2 – closing front door, 4 – swings in the condo play area, 6 – security guard booth, 8 – lady selling fruit, 10 – 7eleven, 12 – motorbike taxi rank etc).

    While mnemonics are an extremely powerful tool for training the memory, they should not be overused as too much time can be spent on generating and learning them and too little on the real understanding of the material.

    References:
    http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/memory.html
    http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/class/mkg_grd/mnemonic.html
    http://www.memory-key.com/mnemonics/mnemonics.htm
    http://www.mindtools.com/mnemlstylo.htm

    b) How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom?

    Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Learning (ZPD) is defined as the student’s range of ability with and without assistance from a teacher or more capable peer: one end of the range being with assistance and the other without assistance. It encourages teachers to act as scaffolds, thereby providing the minimal support necessary for a student to succeed without denying the student’s need to build his/her own foundation: it is a balancing act between supporting students and pushing them towards independence so as to enable each student to reach beyond his/her current ability level. It promotes collaboration with the teacher modelling and the student imitating, and a fading out of instruction whilst students practise reciprocal teaching until the skill is mastered by all students in the classroom. The classroom is set up in a way that fosters group work and student collaboration so students are able to take on different roles with groups depending on their skills. Vygotsky considers that culture plays a large role in how students learn to think and in what they think, and this should also be taken into consideration.

    With all these aspects taken into consideration, there are different ways in which ZPD can be used within a classroom. Firstly, establishing where students are currently learning is vital in ensuring that appropriate goals are set for the child’s next stage of learning regardless of their preferred multiple intelligence.
    With the emphasis being on collaborative learning, the teacher’s role becomes one of facilitator ensuring that groupings are working effectively, and that students have the skills necessary to work cooperatively in any group setting regardless of who the other group members are. Once this is done then students can be grouped in different ways depending on the activities being set. For example, certain activities may require like-learning styles, while others may suit different learning styles; some tasks may take into consideration cultural influences and mixing these up or keeping them together.
    As a problem-solving approach to teaching and learning is advocated with ZPD, it leaves the students with many more options in terms of how they interpret and present their findings/answers, which, in turn, allows for more creative thinking and personalised learning depending on the stronger intelligences of the students. This ultimately will result in the development of productive habits of mind, which is what all teachers should want to develop in their learners.
    With these skills established, this theory can be put into practice in any curriculum area in any age group in any country. The teacher’s role then becomes one of ensuring that the goals of students are being met and new ones are being set to keep the students moving forward in their learning.

    References:
    http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/step/ep201/Spr2000/Jenna-B/zpd.html
    http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm

  3. a) How would you use mnemonics to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples.

    It is a well-known fact that concrete images are more memorable than abstract ideas, and this is where mnemonics are a particularly useful tool as they help to make associations to aid in remembering and can hook into prior experiences to make connections with the new learning. The difference in learning styles comes through which type of mnemonic the students choose to use, but as all students possess all learning styles, it is possible that it is not as clear cut as in the examples that I give below. However the predominance of one learning style may lead to certain types of mnemonic being more effective for certain students when storing information. For example, the visual learner relates most effectively to written information and, therefore, may choose to write an acronym or acrostic. The auditory learner will relate most effectively to the spoken word and, therefore, may choose a rhyme or song as their preferred method of mnemonic. The kinaesthetic learner learns effectively through touch and movement and space, using imitation and practice and will, therefore, prefer the method of loci strategy which requires walking a path or common route and associating different objects/landmarks that you pass with an item/fact that is being remembered. The commonality to all three learning styles is that practice will make perfect, therefore, rehearsal is imperative.

    For example in am elementary classroom (rightly or wrongly) much emphasis is placed on the learning of colours and, often the colours of the rainbow are used. A visual learner may write out the times table and then associate each answer with a rhyming word (two – few, four – door, six – sticks, eight – late, ten – pen, twelve – shelf etc) and then draw a picture to match each one. The auditory learner may choose to create a song to a familiar tune, or create a rap, then record it and listen to it over and over, until they know it by heart. The kinaesthetic learner will walk the journey to school selecting landmarks for each answer (2 – closing front door, 4 – swings in the condo play area, 6 – security guard booth, 8 – lady selling fruit, 10 – 7eleven, 12 – motorbike taxi rank etc).

    While mnemonics are an extremely powerful tool for training the memory, they should not be overused as too much time can be spent on generating and learning them and too little on the real understanding of the material.

    References:
    http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/memory.html
    http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/class/mkg_grd/mnemonic.html
    http://www.memory-key.com/mnemonics/mnemonics.htm
    http://www.mindtools.com/mnemlstylo.htm

    b) How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom?

    Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Learning (ZPD) is defined as the student’s range of ability with and without assistance from a teacher or more capable peer: one end of the range being with assistance and the other without assistance. It encourages teachers to act as scaffolds, thereby providing the minimal support necessary for a student to succeed without denying the student’s need to build his/her own foundation: it is a balancing act between supporting students and pushing them towards independence so as to enable each student to reach beyond his/her current ability level. It promotes collaboration with the teacher modelling and the student imitating, and a fading out of instruction whilst students practise reciprocal teaching until the skill is mastered by all students in the classroom. The classroom is set up in a way that fosters group work and student collaboration so students are able to take on different roles with groups depending on their skills. Vygotsky considers that culture plays a large role in how students learn to think and in what they think, and this should also be taken into consideration.

    With all these aspects taken into consideration, there are different ways in which ZPD can be used within a classroom. Firstly, establishing where students are currently learning is vital in ensuring that appropriate goals are set for the child’s next stage of learning regardless of their preferred multiple intelligence.
    With the emphasis being on collaborative learning, the teacher’s role becomes one of facilitator ensuring that groupings are working effectively, and that students have the skills necessary to work cooperatively in any group setting regardless of who the other group members are. Once this is done then students can be grouped in different ways depending on the activities being set. For example, certain activities may require like-learning styles, while others may suit different learning styles; some tasks may take into consideration cultural influences and mixing these up or keeping them together.
    As a problem-solving approach to teaching and learning is advocated with ZPD, it leaves the students with many more options in terms of how they interpret and present their findings/answers, which, in turn, allows for more creative thinking and personalised learning depending on the stronger intelligences of the students. This ultimately will result in the development of productive habits of mind, which is what all teachers should want to develop in their learners.
    With these skills established, this theory can be put into practice in any curriculum area in any age group in any country. The teacher’s role then becomes one of ensuring that the goals of students are being met and new ones are being set to keep the students moving forward in their learning.

    References:
    http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/step/ep201/Spr2000/Jenna-B/zpd.html
    http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm

  4. a. How would you use mnemonics (memory strategy) to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples.

    Mnemonics is the art of assisting the memory by using a style of artifact aids – rhymes, rules, phrases, diagrams, acronyms, and other devices – all help in the recall names, dates, facts, and figures.
    Since each student has different learning style, I usually mix mnemonics for all visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners. For example, when the students have to memorize new vocabulary, I often use stations. Each station has different activity and the students are divided into groups of 4~5 and assigned to different stations. For example, to memorize date in Japanese, I use three stations. At station 1, big calendar is prepared on the white board and students play the matching. They needed to put the correct date card on the calendar. Since students will remember the location of the date on the calendar, whenever they think of the date, they have a clear visual image of the calendar. Since students watch, talk and walk around, this activity is good for the students who are visual and kinesthetic learners. At station 2, blank white paper is provided to each student. They fold the paper into small pieces and open the paper again. The paper has many small columns. On the first column, students write date in English like 1st, 2nd, 3rd… After they finish writing the first column, they write dates in Japanese on the next column by looking at the first column. Then, students fold the first column back and write the date in English on the third column by looking at the second column. After this, they repeated the same thing to forth column. They do the same writing activity on the back of the paper. Since the shape of the folded paper looks like bread stick, this activity is called bread stick. Students can memorize vocabulary by writing and thinking many times. This is good for the students who like to study independently. At station 3, students listen to the music and sing a date song. Actually, I created this song and students changed this to be rap song. I recorded this song in the computer and students listen to it over and over again. They also sing this song repeatedly. This activity is good for the students who are auditory learner. Usually, each group stays at one station about 10 minutes and will be rotated to the different station. Since students experience three different types of activities and work collaboratively under the comfortable atmosphere, at the end of the class, usually all the students can memorize the date correctly.

    References:
    http://www.bucks.edu/~specpop/mnemonics.htm
    http://www.eudesign.com/mnems/_mnframe.htm

    b. How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom?

    Vygotslky indicated as a theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) that there is a distance between the actual level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined by adult guidance. He indicated that a child follows an adults’ example and gradually be able to develop the ability of certain tasks without help and assistance. He also pointed out that child’s development is determined by social interaction with adult. This is the reason why the parental support at home is important for children to develop their multiple intelligences. For example, if the parents read aloud to the children since they are small, they can develop their linguistic ability more. Also, if the children spend a lot of time with parents, since they will learn how to talk, listen, and care about other people, they can develop their interpersonal skill. Since I am a language teacher, children can develop their linguistic ability through the interaction with a teacher. However, under the classroom environment, I believe that collaborative learning is the best way for children to enhance their learning. If the capable children become a model and work collaboratively as a group, the other children will imitate and receive support from the capable ones, and gradually, these children will be able to do the work independently without help. I think that ESL in mainstream is a good example. By interacting with ESL teacher, ESL students will develop their language skill. Also, since students take lesson with non-ESL students, they are exposed in the English speaking environment. Even though, at the beginning, students need assistance from ESL teacher, students are enforced to listen and speak English with non-ESL students, and gradually, they can do their work without any support. Also, by interacting with teacher and other capable peers, students also can develop their interpersonal skill.

    References:
    http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1zpda.htm
    http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/step/ep301/Spr2000/Jenna-B/zpd.html
    http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/ict/multiple_int/what.cfm
    http://books.google.co.th/books?id=tXEK7ZkOv8QC&dq=multiple+intelligence&pg=PP1&ots=aPBdAgTaHJ&source=citation&sig=_Vd0gmSAYopC4I3Mcp9u5UJ_YSc&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.co.th/search?hl=en&q=multiple+intelligence&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=2&cad=bottom-3results#PPA1,M1

  5. a) How would you use mnemonics to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples.

    It is a well-known fact that concrete images are more memorable than abstract ideas, and this is where mnemonics are a particularly useful tool as they help to make associations to aid in remembering and can hook into prior experiences to make connections with the new learning. The difference in learning styles comes through which type of mnemonic the students choose to use, but as all students possess all learning styles, it is possible that it is not as clear cut as in the examples that I give below. However the predominance of one learning style may lead to certain types of mnemonic being more effective for certain students when storing information. For example, the visual learner relates most effectively to written information and, therefore, may choose to write an acronym or acrostic. The auditory learner will relate most effectively to the spoken word and, therefore, may choose a rhyme or song as their preferred method of mnemonic. The kinaesthetic learner learns effectively through touch and movement and space, using imitation and practice and will, therefore, prefer the method of loci strategy which requires walking a path or common route and associating different objects/landmarks that you pass with an item/fact that is being remembered. The commonality to all three learning styles is that practice will make perfect, therefore, rehearsal is imperative.

    For example in am elementary classroom (rightly or wrongly) much emphasis is placed on the learning of times tables. A visual learner may write out the times table and then associate each answer with a rhyming word (two – few, four – door, six – sticks, eight – late, ten – pen, twelve – shelf etc) and then draw a picture to match each one. The auditory learner may choose to create a song to a familiar tune, or create a rap, then record it and listen to it over and over, until they know it by heart. The kinaesthetic learner will walk the journey to school selecting landmarks for each answer (2 – closing front door, 4 – swings in the condo play area, 6 – security guard booth, 8 – lady selling fruit, 10 – 7eleven, 12 – motorbike taxi rank etc).

    While mnemonics are an extremely powerful tool for training the memory, they should not be overused as too much time can be spent on generating and learning them and too little on the real understanding of the material.

    References:
    http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/memory.html
    http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/class/mkg_grd/mnemonic.html
    http://www.memory-key.com/mnemonics/mnemonics.htm
    http://www.mindtools.com/mnemlstylo.htm

    b) How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom?

    Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Learning (ZPD) is defined as the student’s range of ability with and without assistance from a teacher or more capable peer: one end of the range being with assistance and the other without assistance. It encourages teachers to act as scaffolds, thereby providing the minimal support necessary for a student to succeed without denying the student’s need to build his/her own foundation: it is a balancing act between supporting students and pushing them towards independence so as to enable each student to reach beyond his/her current ability level. It promotes collaboration with the teacher modelling and the student imitating, and a fading out of instruction whilst students practise reciprocal teaching until the skill is mastered by all students in the classroom. The classroom is set up in a way that fosters group work and student collaboration so students are able to take on different roles with groups depending on their skills. Vygotsky considers that culture plays a large role in how students learn to think and in what they think, and this should also be taken into consideration.

    With all these aspects taken into consideration, there are different ways in which ZPD can be used within a classroom. Firstly, establishing where students are currently learning is vital in ensuring that appropriate goals are set for the child’s next stage of learning regardless of their preferred multiple intelligence.
    With the emphasis being on collaborative learning, the teacher’s role becomes one of facilitator ensuring that groupings are working effectively, and that students have the skills necessary to work cooperatively in any group setting regardless of who the other group members are. Once this is done then students can be grouped in different ways depending on the activities being set. For example, certain activities may require like-learning styles, while others may suit different learning styles; some tasks may take into consideration cultural influences and mixing these up or keeping them together.
    As a problem-solving approach to teaching and learning is advocated with ZPD, it leaves the students with many more options in terms of how they interpret and present their findings/answers, which, in turn, allows for more creative thinking and personalised learning depending on the stronger intelligences of the students. This ultimately will result in the development of productive habits of mind, which is what all teachers should want to develop in their learners.
    With these skills established, this theory can be put into practice in any curriculum area in any age group in any country. The teacher’s role then becomes one of ensuring that the goals of students are being met and new ones are being set to keep the students moving forward in their learning.

    References:
    http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/step/ep201/Spr2000/Jenna-B/zpd.html
    http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm

  6. Answer to the question 4:
    a. I often found my students and myself having difficulties in remembering information. According to many researches, the poor memory performance attributed to either disability or inadequate strategies of learning, retention, or recall. As a language teacher, I often believe that one part of brain can store every second of our life and the poor memory performance is caused by lacking of strategies for organizing information for storing and retrieving the stored information. Thus, when my students and myself having difficulties in remembering information, I use the following mnemonics to encourages the different learning styles of students: (1). try to explain the new information in a meaningful way based on the students backgrounds and interests (e.g. If the students know well about particular thing such as cartoons, then explain the new information by using the examples from the particular thing); (2). let students connect the new information with the old information that they know well—let them see the relationships(similarities & differences) between the new information and the old information that they know; (3). use more visual imagery; (4). use materials that are for all senses and skills or abilities such as color books, videos, models, tools and so on; and (5). let the students learn and practice the information in contexts that are meaningful and authentic to the students.

    b. As a language teacher, I use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students I the classroom as follow. (1).letting students clarify the inputs in groups or pairs; (2). asking students to predict things based on their acquired knowledge; (3). letting students brainstorm in groups/pairs on the new concepts; (4).letting students form a habit of analyzing their errors and mistakes; (5). letting students to question and critique on the ideas; (5). letting students summarize and periphrasis the reading materials; and (6) letting students breakdown and analyze the complicated input in groups/pairs by carefully monitoring and scaffolding them based on their level of needs.

  7. a. How would you use mnemonics (memory strategy) to encourage the different learning styles of students? Support your answer with appropriate examples (10 points)

    Visual – For the visual learner:

    •Method of Loci: The student thinks of a very familiar set of locations, such as rooms in his or her house and then imagines each item on the list to be remembered in a specific location. This can be taken further in a sense that a learner could think of specific areas in a drawing or picture and remember items that pertain to said area.

    •Imagery: These are mental images to help remember associations. An ancient method of enhancing the memory is the creation of stories to weave together information. For example, the items to be remembered: (dog, envelope, thirteen, yarn, window) could translate to “a dog stuck in an envelope, mailed to an unlucky black cat playing with yarn by the window”

    •Elaboration: Refers to the process of thinking about materials to be learned in a way that connects the material to information or ideas that are already in the learner’s mind. An example might be: Learning the muscle “Sternocleidomastoid” which can be broken apart because it attaches to the Sternum, the Clavicle and Mastoid Process. The chances are that the learner has already learned the bones if they are moving on to the muscles.

    •Conceptual Models: Diagrams showing how elements of a process relate to one another. A good example of this is a timeline. Pictures of different computers or peripheral devices can be placed on a timeline to show the order in which they were invented.

    Auditory – For the Auditory learner:

    •Paired-associate Learning: The learner must associate a response with each stimulus. For example, learning a different language adapts itself that the native language user will automatically pair the new words up with words already in the students vocabulary (English RED – Spanish ROJO vs. Thai SEE-DANG – Spanish ROJO, if the learner is an English learner)

    •Serial Learning: Involves learning a list of terms in a particular order. I did this with the books of the bible back in Bible-school. We learned a song that went along with it. Another classic example is the “Alphabet Song”.

    •Link system: If we took the example again of having to learn (dog, envelope, thirteen, yarn, window) which translated to “a dog stuck in an envelope, mailed to an unlucky black cat playing with yarn by the window”. This could also be adapted to add a little tune or jingle that went with it, especially if the learner was musically inclined.

    •Questioning Techniques: To learn from written texts, lectures, and other sources of information is the insertion of questions requiring students to stop from time to time to assess their own understanding of what the text or teacher is saying. A great example of this would be to use Bloom’s Taxonomy with regards to the type or level of questioning that would be applied and the scaffolding that might be built into the teaching and learning environment so that the learner indeed comprehends the material that he or she is processing. For recall, certain key questions may be asked of the learner that may spark the memory for the event of recall.

    •First Letter Mnemonics: One common mnemonic for remembering lists consists of an easily remembered word, phrase, or rhyme whose first letters are associated with the list items. An example of this could be CLAP (Please remember to turn the Computers Lights Air-conditioning and Printers off)

    Tactile/Kinesthetic – For the Tactile learner:

    •Free Recall Learning: Involves memorizing a list, but not in a specific order. This can be adapted to touch if the learner is learning parts of the body in another language, or if a learner is trying to learn certain types of movement in kinesiology, like dorsiflexion versus planterflexion it might be useful for the learner to physically move the body while free recalling.

    •Method of Loci: This method can be taken steps further from the visual model mentioned above. The learner can physically move around a room to remember certain items of recall. I have actually seen a little girl who used a huge map against a wall and remembered the place on the map because she had to move in certain directions to point them out.

    b. How can you use Vygotsky’s theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to enhance various multiple intelligences of students in the classroom? (10 points)

    The zone of proximal development is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. Essentially, this is a term that can better be described by a term from Ann Brown known as ‘scaffolding’. Scaffolding can be defined as:

    •Teacher modeling behavior for the student
    •Student imitating the teacher’s behavior
    •Teacher fading out instruction
    •Student practicing reciprocal teaching (scaffolding others) until the skill is mastered by all students in the classroom.

    Below are some examples to enhance multiple intelligences of students.

    •Words (linguistic intelligence): A student should read something that is neither too hard, nor too easy that they get bored with it. The teacher may start to read with the students, then ask the students to read with them, and then ask the students to read on their own and eventually have the students reading to one another in groups.

    •Numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence): The teacher shows the students new mathematical procedures. The students may then be asked where this could be applied in life. The students and teacher work together to get the answer for such a problem. After the student has realized how the problems are solved, the student can then take this learning to apply it to another strategy in life. They may create projects or other types of fabrications to show the understanding of their new knowledge.

    •Pictures (spatial intelligence): In art class a teacher might be teaching perspective and the student may be completely unaware of what this term or idea means. The drawings may be completely awry or skewed. The teacher can then introduce 1-point perspective, which leads to 2-point perspective and eventually 3-point perspective. As the student mimics what the teacher has shown through example, the student will start to adapt the perspective ideas to his or her own drawings. Eventually, the student will not focus on the 1, 2, or 3-point perspective at all in the drawings but will be applying it, showing foreground, middle and background naturally.

    •Music (musical intelligence): There are so many components to the complexity of music. Initially a teacher may be singing or playing a song and allowing the students to sit, listen and enjoy. Often the students will begin to sing along as well. Eventually the teacher may point out that the music is following notes on a staff of a sheet of music. The students can learn about different fluctuations and begin to correlate that with the shift of the notes on the paper. Ultimately the student will learn many of the other determining characteristics of what the sheet of music is telling them. They will continue to follow along with it and the music, but in the end should be able to look at the sheet music by itself and be able to sing the song a capella or without accompaniment.

    •A physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence): In gymnastics a coach or spotter is often used when doing new moves for a gymnast. The first time the gymnast flows through a move, it is the coach who physically shifts the body of the tumbler. It is usually an awkward and unnatural feeling for the person who is being manipulated. After a while, the gymnast performs this task repeatedly with less and less spotting. Eventually, the spotter moves away completely and has the gymnast doing the routine move on their own. The coach is still giving tips about better performance techniques. Finally, the gymnast is doing these procedures to near perfection. The coach is no longer needed and the gymnast will now usually try a new move or combine this one with something else for a more elaborate sequence.

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