Critical Thinking (Chapter 8 – Part II)

What to think?

How to think?

How is critical thinking different from problem-solving?

Critical thinking…

1. Does not aim at solving problems (although it might do so in the process) – looks at an issue from the viewpoint of several other interrelated (or un-interrelated) issues

2. Addresses internal states of the mind – values, beliefs, expectations, etc. (while problem-solving focuses on external issues)

Critical thinking is…

1. Reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do

2. Better thinking

3. Distinguishing between thinking that is directed at clarifying (expounding) a goal

Twelve Critical Thinking Abilities (Ennis, 1987):

1. Focusing on the question

2. Analyzing arguments

3. Asking and answering questions of clarification

4. Judging the credibility of a source

5. Observing and judging observational reports

6. Deducing and judging deductions

7. Inducing and judging inductions

8. Making value judgments (evaluation)

9. Defining terms and judging definitions

10.  Identifying assumptions

11.  Deciding on an action

12.  Interaction with others

Some terms clarified…

1. Knowledge – tool to think critically

2. Inference – making connection between two or more units of knowledge

3. Deduction – understanding a particular unit of knowledge by using already existing units of knowledge

4. Induction – discovering a particular unit of knowledge (often new) from the observation and gathering of different units of knowledge from a variety of settings (time and space)

5. Evaluation – decision-making – includes analyzing, judging, weighing, and making value judgments

6. Metacognition – ability to analyze one’s own decisions

Problem-Solving (Chapter 8 – Part I)

Effective problem-solvers engage in the following steps…

1. Identify the problem (awareness of the problem and the ability to define the problem concretely)

Possible difficulties to engage in this step?

i. ‘Not in the habit’

ii. Lack background knowledge (affects awareness – e.g. Math problems)

iii. Do not spend TIME to reflect

Required disposition?

i. Open-minded (not affected by first impression – react vs. respond)

ii. Engage in exploratory activities

iii.llow problem and solution to evolve (consider it an ongoing process)

iv. Divergent thinking  

2. Re-presenting the problem (helps in analyzing the problem)

› Abstraction

›  Visualization (graph, picture, story, etc.) 

› Ability to think across events, experiences, and knowledge domains

› Goal state = “what you want to accomplish once the problem is solved?”

3. Selecting an appropriate strategy

1. trial-and-error = no strategic plan whatsoever

2. means-ends analysis = sequence of steps identified, implemented, and evaluated individually

a. formulate a goal state

b. break down the problem into smaller sub-problems

c. evaluate the success of one’s performance at each step before proceeding to the next

4. Implement the strategy

› success at this stage depends on success at stages 1-3

› strategy shifting = change strategies more often

› strengthened by previous experiences dealing with problem resolution

› quick solution vs. solution-after-analysis & understanding of the problem

5. Evaluating solutions

› of product and then process

› opportunity to IMPROVE and do better in the future

› usefulness and applicability of a particular strategy checked

Chapter 7: Beliefs about Intelligence and Knowledge

Belief about intelligence and knowledge affects academic performance of learners (thinking and learning)

Two types of intelligence:

1. Fixed (entity theory)

2. Changeable (incremental theory)

The type of belief learners hold about intelligence – (1) or (2) – give rise to the following learning goals:

Those who believe that intelligence is fixed – hold and cherish PERFORMANCE GOALS = strong desire to demonstrate one’s performance and to achieve normatively (for name sake) high success in a domain (show off?)


1. Surface/superficial learning

2. Less persistent

3. Less apt to use learning strategies

4. attribute failure to ability and teacher

5. May develop learned helplessness (defense against perceived incompetence – “anything I do will fail…so why try?”)

6. Engage in external locus of control

Those who believe that intelligence is changeable – hold and cherish LEARNING GOALS = strong desire to improve one’s performance and achieve mastery in a domain; also called mastery goals (doing something for my own sake…for the sake of learning and improving as a person)


1. More persistent

2. More likely to use learning strategies

3. Attribute their success to strategy use and effort

4. “I can improve if I polish my ways of studying and put in more effort”

5. Engage in internal locus of control


› How would you define knowledge?

› What is the origin of knowledge?

› It’s nature?

› What are some of the characteristics of knowledge?

How you perceive ‘knowledge’ affects the way you think and learn!Those who hold the following beliefs about knowledge engage in more sophisticated forms of thinking:

1. Knowledge is complex

2. Knowledge is relative

3. Learning is incremental (change in quantity and quality)

4. Ability to learn is not innately determined (Q: any real life example for this?)

Developmental Sequence that individuals pass through on their way to mature reasoning about ‘knowledge’:

1. Dualist stage – right or wrong, quick learning, absolute, universally certain, accessible only to authorities, look for fact-oriented info, remember info becomes important

2. Relativist stage – uncertain and relative, knowledge must e evaluated on a personal basis by using the best available evidence, look for context-oriented info, construction of meaning, gradual learning, tentative and subject to personal interpretation (Bruce Lee!)

Performance differences between the two orientations do exist…!!!

Chapter 6: Belief about Self


What are some of the factors that contribute toward the success of students at school?

What are some of the factors that contribute toward the failure of students at school?

Which one of these factors do you think is the most common (for both success and failure)?

Which one do you think is the most difficult to deal with (for failure)?

Chapter Outline

  1. Social cognitive theory (relationship between self-confidence and learning)
  2. Attribution theory (how students explain their academic success and failure to themselves)
  3. Student control and autonomy (how students’ and teachers’ expectations create a controlling or autonomy-producing environment in the classroom)

Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura)


What is self-confidence? What is it not?

Where does it come from?

How can it be improved?

Bandura’s ‘reciprocal determinism’ states that learning is the result of an interaction among the following variables:

click on this link for the diagram…

reciprocal determinism diagram.doc


(Self-efficacy judgment & outcome expectancy)

Beliefs and attitudes that affect learning

Environment (Teacher, parent, and peer feedback) – role of significant others

Behavioral (performance) – responses one makes in a given situation – Effort? Luck?

Before I engage in anything, I…

  1. Need to have self-belief that I will be able to do it, (“I can do it”)
  2. Know that I will experience something NICE as a result of that behavior (“It’s worth doing it”)

Give examples for the above mentioned assertion.

Self-efficacy = the degree to which an individual possesses confidence in his/her ability to achieve a goal

Outcome expectancy = the perceived relationship between performing a task successfully and receiving a specific outcome as a consequence of that performance

E.g. I am a good driver, with superb driving abilities. Nevertheless, I am still exposed to chances of accidents because people (in this particular area) like to drink and drive recklessly.

How does this affect my thoughts toward my abilities in driving? How does this affect my actual driving skills?

Two types of learning

  1. Enactive learning = learning by doing
  2. Vicarious learning = learning from a model

The more I do something successfully, the more I do it with great confidence!

Learning (in general) is affected by:

  1. Developmental status of the learner
  2. Prestige of the model
  3. One’s ability to set an attainable goal (specific, attainable, of moderate difficulty)
  4. any other factors you want to suggest???


Illustration: Story of the drunken father with two sons – One son determined never to become like his father. The other one used his father as an excuse to follow in his footsteps – same environment but different self-belief and attitudes

Self-efficacy is DOMAIN SPECIFIC

Linked strongly with behavioral outcomes (expectancy) and environmental cues (feedback)

Positively affects performance and vice versa

Indirectly affects future learning by predisposing students to engage in challenging tasks and to persist longer despite initial failures

Differ along three dimensions:

  1. Task difficulty
  2. Generality (domain specificity)
  3. Strength of one’s efficacy judgment (weak vs. strong perceptions)

Students with higher efficacy will be more inclined to persist and to maintain self-confidence!

Dependent also on:

  1. Successful performance (initial ones esp.)
  2. Model is judged to be similar in ability (teacher vs. peer)
  3. Verbal persuasion
  4. One’s psychological state


  1. What does it mean to have control (or be in control) in the classroom while learning?
  2. What are the characteristics of caring teachers, who would enhance students’ learning to the maximum?
  3. Why do you think that “the number of years teachers spend in the classroom negatively affect their efficacy?”

Definitions of self constructs

Self-esteem: Self-esteem refers to general feelings of self-worth or self-value.

Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy is belief in one’s capacity to succeed at tasks. General self-efficacy is belief in one’s general capacity to handle tasks. Specific self-efficacy refers to beliefs about one’s ability to perform specific tasks (e.g., driving, public speaking, studying, etc.)

Self-confidence: Self-confidence refers to belief in one’s personal worth and likelihood of succeeding. Self-confidence is a combination of self-esteem and general self-efficacy.

Self-concept: Self-concept is the nature and organization of beliefs about one’s self. Self-concept is theorized to be multi-dimensional. For example, people have separate beliefs about physical, emotional, social, etc. aspects of themselves.

Chapter 5 (Part II)

Chapter 5: Retrieval Processes (Summary)

Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP)

Memory is enhanced when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval

Context – affects both encoding and retrieval

Context effects

1. Environment – same place!

2. State-dependent – drug states

3. Mood-dependent – mood states

Good memory is a result of a GOOD LINK…!

Memory Cues / Retrieval Cues – enhance memory (sights and sounds, moods, psychological conditions, etc.)

“All forgetting is due not to the actual loss of memories, but our inability to retrieve them”

Recall = retrieving without any hints or cues (free recall and cued recall)


Recognition = examine a list and identifying what one has learned before

Q: How do you prepare for a Multiple Choice quiz?

How do you prepare for an Essay quiz?

Which one is easier to study for and take?

Generation Effect = “verbal material self-generated at the time of encoding is better remembered than material that one merely reads at encoding”

Elaborative Interrogation = asking ‘why?‘ enhances encoding and retrieval

Memory Reconstruction = retrieval is not just a straightforward reading out of memory – rather than remembering the entirety of a memory event, only KEY ELEMENTS of an episode are stored, guided by schemata – you usually retrieve some key elements and reconstruct the rest (e.g. what happened in the church last Sabbath?). For this, we rely on…

Gist of experience

General knowledge

Flashbulb Memory = memory of highly specific events (e.g. where were you at the time when the WTC were attacked? What were you doing?)

Chapter 5: Retrieval Processes (Part I)

Retrieval refers to the processes through which we recover items from memory (remembering?)

Note: Encoding and storage are necessary to acquire and retain information. But the crucial process in remembering is retrieval, without which we could not access our memories. Unless we retrieve an experience, we do not really remember it. In the broadest sense, retrieval refers to the use of stored information.

Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP)

The encoding specificity principle of memory (Tulving & Thomson, 1973) provides a general theoretical framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory. Specifically, the principle states that memory is improved when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval. For example, the encoding specificity principle would predict that recall for information would be better if subjects were tested in the same room they had studied in versus having studied in one room and tested in a different room (see S.M. Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978).

When you store something in memory, the memory is not just of the item being organized and stored but also of the context in which the memory occurred. Recall and recognition thus may be triggered by elements of the context being present.

Remembering knowledge is enhanced when conditions at retrieval match those present at encoding. When retrieval cues differ substantially from those present at encoding, an efficient search of memory may be impossible! (Create a richer context for retrieval – Cuing in widest possible range of context/situation – maximum remembering!)

So what?

To get people to remember something, make use of the context in which it happened.

Context Effects

A person’s memory will be best if the testing occurs in same context as the learning.

Environmental Context Effect — refers to anything external in the environment

•   If given a list to learn in one room, will do better on a memory test if in the same room at test

State-dependent Effects — refers to drug states

•   If in a drug state at learning, you will remember better at test if under same drug than if sober

•   Note: you will do best if sober both times

Mood-dependent Effects — refers to mood state

•   If in a particular mood while learning, will do better at test if in the same mood.

There ought to be a link between encoding & retrieval — perhaps good memory is a result of a good link. What leads to good memory? — Memory cues — cues lead to retrieval (e.g., face – name)

Q: So, what makes a retrieval cue effective?

A retrieval cue is any stimulus that helps us recall information in long-term memory. The fact that retrieval cues can provoke powerful recollections has led some researchers to speculate that perhaps all memories are permanent. That is, perhaps nearly all experiences are recorded in memory for a lifetime, and all forgetting is due not to the actual loss of memories but to our inability to retrieve them. This idea is an interesting one, but most memory researchers believe it is probably wrong.

Two general principles govern the effectiveness of retrieval cues. One is called the encoding specificity principle. According to this principle, stimuli may act as retrieval cues for an experience if they were encoded with the experience. Pictures, words, sounds, or smells will cause us to remember an experience to the extent that they are similar to the features of the experience that we encoded into memory. For example, the smell of cotton candy may trigger your memory of a specific amusement park because you smelled cotton candy there.

Distinctiveness is another principle that determines the effectiveness of retrieval cues. Suppose a group of people is instructed to study a list of 100 items. Ninety-nine are words, but one item in the middle of the list is a picture of an elephant. If people were given the retrieval cue “Which item was the picture?” almost everyone would remember the elephant. However, suppose another group of people was given a different 100-item list in which the elephant picture appeared in the same position, but all the other items were also pictures of other objects and animals. Now the retrieval cue would not enable people to recall the picture of the elephant because the cue is no longer distinctive. Distinctive cues specify one or a few items of information.

Overt cues such as sights and sounds can clearly induce remembering. But evidence indicates that more subtle cues, such as moods and physiological states, can also influence our ability to recall events.

State-dependent memory refers to the phenomenon in which people can retrieve information better if they are in the same physiological state as when they learned the information. The initial observations that aroused interest in state-dependent memory came from therapists working with alcoholic patients. When sober, patients often could not remember some act they performed when intoxicated. For example, they might put away a paycheck while intoxicated and then forget where they put it. This memory failure is not surprising, because alcohol and other depressant drugs (such as marijuana, sedatives, and even antihistamines) are known to impair learning and memory. However, in the case of the alcoholics, if they got drunk again after a period of abstinence, they sometimes recovered the memory of where the paycheck was. This observation suggested that perhaps drug-induced states function as a retrieval cue.

A number of studies have confirmed this hypothesis. In one typical experiment, volunteers drank an alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverage before studying a list of words. A day later, the same subjects were asked to recall as many of the words as they could, either in the same state as they were in during the learning phase (intoxicated or sober) or in a different state. Not surprisingly, individuals intoxicated during learning but sober during the test did worse at recall than those sober during both phases. In addition, people who studied material sober and then were tested while intoxicated did worse than those sober for both phases. The most interesting finding, however, was that people intoxicated during both the learning and test phase did much better at recall than those who were intoxicated only during learning, showing the effect of state-dependent memory.

When people are in the same state during study and testing, their recall is better than those tested in a different state. However, one should not conclude that alcohol improves memory. As noted, alcohol and other depressant drugs usually impair memory and most other cognitive processes. Those who had alcohol during both phases remembered less than those who were sober during both phases.

Psychologists have also studied the topic of mood-dependent memory. If people are in a sad mood when exposed to information, will they remember it better later if they are in a sad mood when they try to retrieve it? Although experiments testing this idea have produced mixed results, most find evidence for mood-dependent memory.

Mood- and state-dependent memory effects are further examples of the encoding specificity principle. If mood or drug state is encoded as part of the learning experience, then providing this cue during retrieval enhances performance.

Chapter 4: Encoding (Part II)

Two kinds of learning:

  1. Simple – involves associating terms and acquiring them through rehearsal (e.g. memorizing grocery list, name of capital cities, etc.)

  1. Complex – involves understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking (e.g. digestive processes, chemical reactions, etc.)

Two types of Rehearsal:

  1. Maintenance rehearsal – shallow encoding; direct recycling of information in order to keep it active in STM (verbal repetition); retention is limited in this kind of encoding; highly efficient for a short-while; e.g. taking down someone’s telephone number; seldom last long L

  1. Elaborative rehearsal – information to-be-remembered is related to other information; deeper or more elaborate encoding activity; leads to high level of recall; sometimes, information can be broken into component parts and related to what one already knows

Strategies for encoding complex information:

Schema activation

Instructional techniques designed to bring to mind students’ relevant knowledge prior to their encountering new information

New knowledge is built on prior knowledge (bridging what they already know and what they want to know)

KWL method

Guided Questioning

Asking and answering questions about a text or teacher-presented information can greatly improve comprehension (hence, improve memorization and learning)

Allows students to think about, discuss, compare and contrast, infer, evaluate, explain, justify, synthesize, etc.

Guided peer questioning

Levels of Processing

What learners DO as they encode new information matters a great deal!

Memory/learning depends on depth of processing

1. Deep processing = processing centered on meaning (e.g. read ‘something’ and talk to the class about it without referring to any material, in one’s own words, etc.)

2. Shallow processing = keying on superficial aspects of new material (e.g. underline new words in the book, and look up for their meaning)

Chapter 4: Encoding Processes (Part I)

Encoding affects retention (storage) and retrieval of information from memory

Two kinds of learning:

  1. Simple – involves associating terms and acquiring them through rehearsal (e.g. memorizing grocery list, name of capital cities, etc.)
  2. Complex – involves understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking (e.g. digestive processes, chemical reactions, etc.)

*according to research in cognitive psychology, encoding is enhanced when we combine and thoughtfully use strategies to learn simple information (imagery, linking, mnemonics, etc.) with strategies to learn complex information (understanding, reasoning, problem-solving, attaching meaning, etc.)!

Encoding Simple Information

Two types of Rehearsal:

  1. Maintenance rehearsal – shallow encoding; direct recycling of information in order to keep it active in STM (verbal repetition); retention is limited in this kind of encoding; highly efficient for a short-while; e.g. taking down someone’s telephone number; seldom last long L
  2. Elaborative rehearsal – information to-be-remembered is related to other information; deeper or more elaborate encoding activity; leads to high level of recall; sometimes, information can be broken into component parts and related to what one already knows

* Different types of rehearsal are appropriate for different type of tasks

Q: Give examples of the type of tasks (in your own life) that would require you to use

Maintenance rehearsal strategies

Elaborative rehearsal strategies


Mediation – tying difficult-to-be-remember items to something more meaningful; results in deeper, more elaborate encoding than simple repetition of new content

Imagery – encoding using images/pictures (non-verbal); leads to better memory performance; easily imagined words (more concrete in nature, like ‘car’, ‘pencil’, etc.) tend to be remembered more readily than hard-to-imagine words (more abstract in nature, like ‘freedom’, ‘truth’, etc.); this activity can be extended to encode complex CONCEPTS too; consider individual differences among students in tier ability to image information; some students are better able to employ imagery than others and these differences seem to lead to differences in memory performance; best images (that enhance memory) are bizarre (vs. mundane), colorful, and strange.

The Peg Method – students memorize a series of ‘pegs’ on which to-be-learned information can be ‘hug’ one item at a time; e.g.

One for bun

Two for shoe

Three for tree

Four for door

Five for hive

Six for sticks

Seven for heaven

Eight for gate

Nine for pine

Ten for hen

Construct a visual image of the first thing on the to-be-learned list interacting with the object named in the first line of the rhyme

The Method of Loci – mentally walking through a ‘location’ (that one is extremely familiar with); each item (sofa, table, window, television, etc.) in the ‘location’ is linked to particular to-be-learned information

The Link Method – no need for a previously learned set of materials like the rhyme or ‘location’; used when learning list of things; student forms an image for each item in a list of things to be learned; each image is pictured as INTERACTIING with the next item on the list; all of the items are linked in imagination

Stories – stories can be constructed from a list of words to be remembered, the to-be-learned words in a list are put together in a story such that the to-be-learned words are highlighted; at recall, the story is remembered and the to-be-remembered words are plucked from the story

The First-Letter Method – using the first letters of to-be-learned words to construct acronyms or words

The Keyword Method – to facilitate vocabulary acquisition; used in connection with imagery; two stages (illustrated with an example of learning the word, ‘captivate’)

  1. Acoustic link – search for a ‘keyword’ within the to-be-learned word, let’s say ‘cap’
  2. Imagery link – link this keyword, ‘cap’ with an image (image from real-life connected to one’s experiences)

Copyright September 2006 by Dr. Edward Roy Krishnan,

Chapter 3: Long-Term Memory

Sensory Memory & Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory

Recent experiences

Memory traces developed over periods of days, weeks, months, & years

Things that are currently in consciousness

Lifetime of information

Rehearsal / repetition are crucial

Meaning & organization are crucial

Capacity & retention duration are limited

Permanent repository (storehouse)

Recall = understanding information + retrieving LTM becomes particularly important if we believe that learning is a constructive process (creation & re-creation of new knowledge in the context of previously established and retrievable knowledge) – role of prior knowledge and experience – it’s like building a new house using whatever resources you already have (bricks, cement, tiles, planks, etc.).

Types of Knowledge:

  1. Declarative Knowledge = factual knowledge (knowing ‘what’)

Semantic Knowledge = general knowledge – concepts and principles – meaning and understanding of meaning

Episodic Knowledge = personal experiences – personally dated, autobiographical experiences – “personal tags” association recall

  1. Procedural Knowledge = process knowledge (knowing ‘how’)
  2. Conditional Knowledge = knowing ‘when’ and ‘why’ to use DK & PK (needed to help us use DK & PK in real-life settings – at the right time, in the right place, for the right purpose)

Explicit Memory

Implicit Memory

Involves conscious recall or recognition of previous experiences; intentional information retrieval; a conscious or voluntary search for information

declarative memory

Knowing information about a bike

Knowledge without awareness; unintentional, non-conscious/unconscious form of retention; actions influenced by a previous event but without conscious awareness/remembering; e.g., using computers, tying shoes, driving a car (procedural knowledge, conditioning, habituation); behavior can be influenced by memory of past events even without conscious awareness (stereotypes & prejudice?)

In fact, when a person tries to reflect on how these skills are being performed, performance often deteriorates

Non-declarative memory

Knowing the physical process of riding a bike


We may know how to ride a bike, but it is very difficult to explain how to do so.

If we believe in implicit memory or learning, it seems that people are unconsciously acquiring rules that they can use but NOT articulate.

Overall, we are good at getting ‘the gist’ of things but falter on details!

The Building Blocks of Cognition (What make cognition possible?)

  1. Concepts
  2. Propositions
  3. Schemata
  4. Productions
  5. Scripts


1, 2, & 3 = ways of representing declarative knowledge

4 & 5 = ways of representing procedural knowledge


Conceptual categories – everything we know can be placed under meaningful categories based on perceived similarities (examples vs. non-examples of a concept)

Attributes = similarities or common features required to define a concept

Defining attributes = features essential to defining a concept

Learning a concept involves discovering the defining attributes and discovering the rule or rules that relate the attributes to one another – leads to the formation of hypotheses and the testing of the same by examining attributes and rules

Role of culture? Categorizing abstract concepts?


Consist of concepts

The mental equivalent of statements or assertions (claims) about observed experiences and about the relationships among concepts

Can be judged to be true or false

Meanings emphasized rather than the exact form of information

We retain meaning and not the surface structure of information (these are quickly lost)

Propositions do not stand alone – connected with one another and may be embedded within one another

A complex proposition is usually broken into simpler sentences (‘idea unit’) to enhance understanding of the meaning presented by the proposition

Propositional networks = propositions sharing one or more elements are linked with one another (our ability to comprehend information and to use if effectively in cognitive operations such as problem-solving depends on the quality of networks we are able to create


Mental frameworks that we use to organize knowledge

Control the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

Data structures that represent knowledge stored in memory

Fundamental to information processing

Represent our knowledge about objects, events, sequences of events, actions, and sequences of actions

When a fresh knowledge is acquired via accommodation (adding) or assimilation (changing and fitting into existing schemata), a new schema is said to be created

Once a new schema is created, its traces serve as a basis of our re-collection – it is part of our long-term memory repository

When schemata are not or cannot be activated during learning, new knowledge cannot be assimilated easily

Memory consists of representations of knowledge, rather than exact copies of it…thus, encoding will vary according to the schemata activated at the time of encoding (learning). In this sense, recall is not simply remembering/recalling stored information…rather, it is re-creating information and events – memory is constructive and re-constructive in nature!

Productions (can be compared to propositions)

‘Condition-action’ rules – actions occur if the specified condition(s) exist

If…then rules

Memory for productions = implicit memory (conscious thought not involved)

Automated skills

Productions are organized in networks called ‘production systems’ – multiple productions may be active at a given time


Production A: If car is locked, then insert key in lock

Production B: If key is inserted in lock, then turn key

Production C: If door unlocks, then return the key to vertical

Production D: If key is vertical, then withdraw key

Scripts (can be compared to schemata)

Provide underlying mental frameworks for our procedural knowledge

Schema representation for events

Contain action sequences and subsequences + actors + objects + characteristics of the setting

Accountable for stereotypical patterns of activity

Copyright September 2006 by Dr. Edward Roy Krishnan,